Equipment

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The laboratory equipment allows, in a not invasive way, the numerical acquisition, the processing and the integrated representation of kinematic and dynamic data related to the posture and to the movement of subjects. In other words, it is possible to measure positions, speeds, angles, EMG signals, ground reaction forces and other important variables (i.e powers, moments) during walking or during other specific gestures. That is possible by the interaction of several instruments and softwares listed below.

Instrumentation

Two optoelectronic systems: an SMART DX 400 system (BTS SPA, IT) with 8 video cameras  (100 Hz) and a SMART system (BTS SPA, IT), with 6 cameras (50 Hz). Both measure the three-dimensional coordinates of markers. From these cordinates it is possible to calculate trajectories, angular sizes (e.g. angles of flexion-extension, abdo-adduction and extra-intra rotation of the main articulations), speed, accelerations and to know in detail the kinematic of the movement of the physical segment where the markers have been positioned.


Two platforms of force  (AMTI, USA) suited to measure the system of forces exchanged to the ground. From the acquaintance of the forces value and from the kinematic (by means of the optoelectronic system) it is possible to calculate the moments and the powers of the main articulations.


An 8 channels telemetric electromyography (FREEMG, BTS SPA, IT) to acquire the electrical signal associated to the muscular contraction by wireless superficial electrodes.


A wireless intertial system (G-SENSOR, BTS, It) consisting of a triaxial accelerometer, a magnetic sensor and a triaxial gyroscope that allow to perform gait analysis for healthy and patological subjects, to analyze and measure spatio-temporal and angular parameters during specific clinical tasks ( e.g. Timed Up and Go, Sit to Stand). The same system could be used in athletes evaluation and sport applications (e.g. vertical jump measurement)


A pressure platform (P-WALK, BTS, It) allows to evaluate the plantar pressures distribution, both in static and dynamic phases. It provides quantitative information on the plantar support throughout the computation of some parameters such as surface area, maximum pressure, mean pressure and centre of pressure. This quantitative measure allows the individualization of plantar overload, rotations and postural asymmetries.


A wearable cardiopulmonary and metabolic equipment (K5, Cosmed, IT).  This system is used during the cardiopulmonary exercise test. It allows us to know the physiological state and the exercise capacity of an individual. It allows to evaluate not only the electrocardiographic behavior under stress but also the metabolism, in particular ventilation, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during physical activity. It is capable to measure the most important metabolic parameters: VO2, VCO2, Ventilation, HR, energy expenditure.


A Laser Scanner 3D (LS3D) system (O&P – RODIN4D, FR). LS3D is used to create three-dimensional model of object in real time. It is applied on orthopaedics, on design of orthoses and other health and well-being applications.  It has the advantages of being relative inexpensive, fast, accurate, non-invasive and has no contact with the patient

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A polygraph (NEXUS, NL) that allows  to measure several physiological parameters such as respiration, heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature and some electrical signals (EEG, EMG, EOG, ECG)